Twelve characteristics of the hottest global wind

2022-08-07
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The development of global wind power manufacturing technology presents twelve characteristics

looking at the technological reality of the world's wind power industry and the development of cutting-edge technologies, the current development of global wind power manufacturing technology mainly presents the following characteristics:

1. Industrial concentration is taking advantage of the overall trend

2009, the world's top ten wind turbine manufacturers accounted for 78.7% of the global market share, The top 15 wind turbine manufacturers in the world account for 88.1% of the global market share. The top 5 enterprises, Vestas in Denmark, Ge wind in the United States, Sinovel in China, Enercon in Germany and Goldwind in China, account for 49.8% of the domestic and foreign market share. It can be seen that the world wind turbine manufacturing enterprises have formed a situation controlled or monopolized by more than ten large wind turbine manufacturing enterprises

in recent years, mergers, reorganizations and acquisitions among wind power equipment manufacturing enterprises have become increasingly fierce. Areva Group acquired -multibrid; Vestas company of Denmark merged con company; American GE company acquired German Enron wind power company; Siemes acquired Danish an/bonus and German Winergy Ag; Indian Suzlon company controls REpower company; Goldwind technology acquired German vensys company

Xiangdian Co., Ltd. acquired Darwin company of the Netherlands for 10million euros; Zhongfu Lianzhong acquired German noi company; AVIC Huiteng acquired Dutch CTC blade company in 2009; Ge Corporation of the United States and Harbin Electric Group have jointly established general Harbin electric wind energy (Shenyang) Co., Ltd. and general Harbin electric wind energy (Jiangsu) Co., Ltd. In addition, major companies have established production bases in major market concentration areas. A large company is equivalent to the integration of multiple companies

2. Horizontal axis wind turbine technology has become the mainstream

horizontal axis wind turbine technology has become the mainstream model of wind power development in the world, accounting for more than 95% of the market share, because it has the advantages of high wind energy conversion efficiency, short rotation axis and more economy in large-scale wind turbines. Due to the problems of long rotating shaft, low wind energy conversion efficiency, difficult start-up, shutdown and pitch, the vertical axis wind turbine units developed in the same period have a small market share and limited number of applications. However, due to the advantages of all wind direction opposite wind, speed change devices and generators can be placed under the wind turbine or on the ground, in recent years, relevant research and development in the world are also ongoing and have made some progress

3. The single unit capacity of wind turbines continues to increase

in recent years, the single unit capacity of wind turbines in the world wind power market continues to increase. With the continuous increase of single unit capacity and the improvement of utilization efficiency, the world's mainstream models have increased from 500^-1000kw in 2000 to VM in 2009

China's mainstream models have increased from kW in 2005 to kW in 2009. In 2009, the largest wind turbine installed in China's land wind farms was 2MW

in recent years, the development of offshore wind farms has further accelerated the development of large-capacity wind turbines. By the end of 2008, the single unit capacity of the largest wind turbine in operation in the world has reached 6MW, and the diameter of wind turbine has reached 127m. At present, the design and manufacture of MW wind turbine has been started. China Sinovel's 3MW offshore wind turbine has been successfully put into operation in Shanghai Donghai Bridge offshore wind farm, and 5MW offshore wind turbine has been offline at the end of October 2010. At present, Sinovel, Jinfeng, Dongfang motor, Guodian united, Hunan Xiangdian, Chongqing haizhuang and other companies are developing 5MW or 6MW large-capacity wind turbines

4. Variable pitch and variable speed power regulation technology has been widely used

because variable pitch power regulation has the advantages of stable, safe and efficient load control, it has been widely used in large wind turbines in recent years. Combined with the application of variable pitch technology and the development of power electronics technology, most wind turbine manufacturers began to use variable speed constant frequency technology and developed variable pitch variable speed wind turbines, which further improved and improved the conversion of wind energy. In 2009, 95% of the wind turbines installed in the world adopted the variable pitch variable speed mode, and the proportion is gradually increasing. Among the MW wind turbines installed in China in 2009, all are variable pitch wind turbines. Most wind turbines above 2MW adopt three independent electric control propeller adjustment mechanisms, and the blades are closed-loop controlled through three groups of variable-speed motors and reduction boxes

5. Doubly fed asynchronous power generation technology still dominates timing interruption

take the V80 of Vestas company in Denmark as an example The double fed asynchronous generation variable speed wind turbine represented by V90 accounts for the largest share in the international wind power market. The unit capacity developed by German REpower company using this technology has reached 5MW. Siemens, nordex of Germany, gamesa of Spain, Ge wind energy of the United States and Suzlon of India are all producing variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed asynchronous generation. Among the new wind turbines in 2009, the variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed asynchronous generation still account for more than 80%. At present, 10MW doubly fed asynchronous variable speed constant frequency wind turbines are being developed in Europe

China's domestic enterprises Sinovel wind power, Dongfang gas turbine, Guodian united power, Guangdong Mingyang and other enterprises are also producing double fed asynchronous variable-speed wind turbines. Among the new wind turbines in China in 2009, the doubly fed asynchronous variable speed wind turbines still accounted for more than 82%. At present, the 3MW doubly fed asynchronous variable speed constant frequency wind turbine developed by Sinovel wind power has been put into operation

6. The direct drive and full power converter technology has developed rapidly.

the direct drive without gearbox can effectively reduce the unit failure caused by gearbox problems, effectively improve the operation reliability and service life of the system, and reduce the maintenance cost. Therefore, it has been favored by the market. The adoption of gearless system in Germany resulted in poor household reputation after the completion of some wood plastic projects. Enercon was still the largest supplier of wind power industry in Germany and Portugal and the second largest supplier of wind power industry in India in 2009. In the newly increased wind power installed capacity, Enercon has accounted for more than 55% of the domestic market share. Siemens has installed two W-type direct drive wind turbines in Western Denmark, which are in the trial operation stage. Other major manufacturing enterprises are also actively developing direct drive wind turbines. China's Xinjiang Goldwind Technology Co., Ltd. and Germany's vensys company have cooperated to develop 1.5MW direct drive wind turbines, and thousands of them have been installed in the wind farm

Goldwind technology was the second largest supplier in China's wind power market in 2009. At the same time, 2MW direct drive wind turbine units of China Xiangdian Corporation have also entered the market in batches. Other manufacturing enterprises such as Guangxi Yinhe Aimaidi, aerospace Wanyuan, Weifang ruiqineng, Baotou Huiquan rare earth, Jiangxi Maide company, Shandong Luneng also developed direct drive wind turbines. Among the new large-scale wind turbines in 2009, direct drive wind turbines have exceeded 17%

with the emergence of direct drive wind power system, full power converter technology has been developed and applied. The application of full power converter technology expands the speed regulation range of wind turbine and generator to. To 150% of the rated speed, which improves the utilization range of wind energy. As the full power converter technology has a good and simple solution to the low voltage ride through technology, it has an advantage for the next development. At the same time, semi direct drive wind turbines also began to appear in the world wind power market. In terms of bearing support mode, a single rotating support bearing has become the choice for some units with a capacity of more than 2 MW instead of the main shaft and two bearings, such as fuland's 2.5 MW wind turbine, which indicates that the non main shaft system is becoming a new trend in the development of wind turbines in Europe

7. The performance of key components of large-scale wind turbines is improving day by day

with the continuous increase of single unit capacity of wind turbines, the performance indicators of all components have been improved. Foreign countries have developed 3000v-12000v special high-voltage generators for wind power generation, further improving the efficiency of generators; The application of high-voltage three-level converter greatly reduces the loss of power devices and makes the inverter efficiency reach more than 98%; Some companies have also optimized the blade and pitch control system. For example, the German Enercon company improved the blade so that the CP value of the blade reached more than 0.5. From the situation of Husum wind energy exhibition in 2007, the industrial chain of wind power equipment in Europe has been formed, which has laid a foundation for rapid development in the future

China has also made significant progress in key components of large-scale wind turbines, such as large-scale wind turbine gearboxes produced by major gearbox manufacturers such as Nanjing high speed gearbox factory, Chongqing gearbox factory, heavy reducer factory, Hangzhou Qianjin gearbox factory and Deyang Erzhong, with sufficient supply capacity and significantly improved quality; Baoding Huiteng, Lianyungang Zhongfu Lianzhong and Sinoma technology have been able to produce 48.8m long large-size blades matched with 3MW wind turbines, and the quality of generators produced by Lanzhou electric machinery factory has been greatly improved. From the fourth wind energy exhibition in Shanghai in 2009, the industrial chain of wind power equipment in China has been formed, which has laid a solid foundation for the rapid development in the future. China has advantages in some basic structural parts, castings and forgings, which can not only meet the domestic market demand, but also supply to the international market

more than 10 enterprises, including Beijing corona Energy Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei sungrow power supply Co., Ltd., Beijing qingneng Huafu Wind Power Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin Ruineng electric, Longyuan electric, Kyushu Electric and Hewang electric, have the R & D, production and supply capacity of megawatt wind turbine converter

8. The application of intelligent control technology has accelerated the improvement of the reliability and service life of wind turbines

in view of the fact that the limit load and fatigue load of wind turbines are one of the main factors affecting the reliability and service life of wind turbines and components, in recent years, wind turbine manufacturers and relevant research departments have actively studied the optimal operation and control law of wind turbines, and combined the intelligent control technology with the whole machine design technology, Efforts to reduce and avoid wind turbine operation at limit load and fatigue load have gradually become the main development direction of wind power control technology

9. Development trend of blade technology

as the size of wind turbine increases, the length of blade also becomes longer. In order to prevent the tip of blade from colliding with the tower, the main idea of design is to increase the stiffness of blade. In order to reduce the gravity and maintain the frequency, it is necessary to reduce the weight of the blade. Good fatigue characteristics and good vibration damping structure help to ensure the long-term working life of the blade

additional blade condition detection equipment will be developed and installed on the wind turbine to alert the operator before cracks in the blade structure develop into fatal damage or before the wind turbine is damaged. For onshore wind turbines, this kind of testing equipment will soon become a must-have

in order to increase the individual stiffness of the blade and prevent it from touching the tower due to bending, reinforced carbon fiber materials will be widely used in blades longer than 50m

in order to facilitate the road transportation of megawatt blades, some companies have made the blades into two sections. For example, the blade of E126 6MW wind turbine of Enercon company in Germany is composed of inner and outer blades. The inner section near the blade root is made of steel and wrapped with FRP shell to form a pneumatic surface

intelligent materials such as piezoelectric materials will be used to enable the aerodynamic shape of blades to change rapidly

in order to reduce the fatigue load on the blade and the whole machine, the controllable trailing edge leaflets may be gradually

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